What is the impact of online court proceedings with respect to litigants and lawyers?


This article is written by- Surbhi Kumari from Amity University Patna.


Ever since the appearance of the time of the web, a brand new question has begun to emerge with relation to the thought of net access as a right. Folks have begun to advocate their voices regarding the importance of this as a right. With relation to the recent pandemic, the web has become the medium of labour and therefore the supply of each essential factor, together with the courts. With the fast evolution of technology and therefore the net enjoying an important role.

In 2016, the UN declared access to the web as a basic right. Since the eruption of COVID-19, net services have provided the comfort of performing from home to billions of individuals. Whereas virtual courts have emerged as an answer to render justice in times of the pandemic, there arises a retardance with relation to the accessibility of net services and an information measure of network which will change and guarantee sleek functioning.

The Covid-19 pandemic has non-continuous court operations across the country, prompting judges to set back nonessential proceedings and conduct others through video or phone. When courts have begun to open up, several also are continuing or testing new ways in which to expand the employment of remote technology. At identical times, public health considerations square measure leading some legal services suppliers and alternative advocates to oppose the come back to in-person proceedings. On the far side of the present moment, many court leaders have jointly suggested that distended use of remote technology ought to become a permanent feature of our justice system.

Reason of Virtual court

The unfolding of Coronavirus and therefore the nationwide internment has prompted the Supreme Court and varied High Courts to conduct judicial proceedings on-line. The Supreme Court has taken measures to ensure continuity of administration of justice throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. IT infrastructure is being put in to help the proceedings that may present itself within the virtual presence of the shoppers and their legal representatives. While the requirement of the hour needs such steps to be taken, it’s imperative that free and honest administration of justice isn’t non continuous.

The advantages of virtual court for lawyers and litigants

• It is simpler for everybody to schedule a particular time for a hearing. There’s less waiting around for alternative cases to end. If a decision has to be schedule or set back a hearing, everybody will wait within the comfort of their home.

• There isn’t any ought to travel. This protects on travel expenses and time. There’s no ought to reserve an area within the courthouse or associate degree workplace. There’s conjointly less to worry regarding security, parking, lines, and alternative inconveniences.

• Introducing exhibits. Generally, with group discussion, the lawyers ought to have all their exhibits ready (in advance of the hearing/meeting) in order that they are sent to the decide for review and to opposing counsel.

• Reduce the employment of police.

• Cost effective.

Disadvantages of virtual court for lawyers and litigants

• Control problems. It should be harder to decide to manage a virtual court than a physical court. Judges can’t see what’s occurring behind the scenes of the lense.

•While most court proceedings are open to the public, lawsuits without a jury might often involve just the decision, the shoppers, and consequently the lawyers. However once you’re on-line employing a service like Zoom, children, relatives, and anyone with a countersign will watch. This is often particularly vital once it involves sequestering witnesses.In a physically demanding court, the ruling will direct the witnesses to remain outside the courtroom until it is time to testify. When you’re conducting judicial proceedings, it’s easier to enforce the principles.

• Many personal records together with psychological evaluations, medical reports, and alternative info square measure are introduced in trials and alternative court hearings. There’s a larger risk that this info is hacked once you’re in an exceedingly video conference. There might also be problems involving the privacy and security of medical records thanks to the insurance movability and answer ableness Act.

The effects of virtual court on witness credibility

One surprising result of video court is witness quality. It’s exhausting to elucidate however vital it’s to examine a witness head to head and to look at how that witness reacts underneath questioning. A classic means of observing the quality of a witness is to look at their hands. In an exceedingly physical court, the judge will see the hand. In an exceedingly virtual court, the judge can’t see a witness’s hands. Very little things like this will create it more durable to work out if a witness is credible. There is conjointly a true risk of witness change of state. In an exceedingly virtual court setting, it is exhausting to inform if a witness is being coached through text messages or another dishonest technique. Due to COVID-19, the community is exploiting teleconferences and remote hearings through programs like Zoom so personal injury cases will proceed to a settlement or trial.

Challenges to Adopting Virtual Courts

The question of access

Most virtual court proceedings in India presently present themselves exploiting third party software/platforms that create a security hazard and square measure liable to hacking and misuse. It should be built as an Associate degree proprietary software system for India’s judiciary to use and handle virtual court sessions.

The degree of comfort:

An extremely underrated equally eventful issue is whether or not everybody, even though access to reliable net property is universal, is snug and well versed with the new tools and mediums of justice delivery. It’s fascinating that the Secretary, Department of Justice declared that massive, well-fixed law corporations and advocates in urban areas would face no problems as compared to those participants in rural areas given the digital divide


The idea of open courts:

On this, representatives of the bar visited the extent of stating that virtual courts “threaten the constitutionality of Court proceedings and undermine the importance of Rule of law that forms a neighbourhood of the fundamental structure of the Constitution.”

• In the case of Naresh Shridhar Mirajkar and Ors. v. State of maharashtra and Ors,

The Supreme Court expressed “… Public trial in open Court is doubtless essential for the healthy, objective and truthful administration of justice. Trial control subject to the general public scrutiny and gaze naturally acts as a check against judicial desire or vagaries and is a robust instrument for making confidence of the general public within the fairness, judgment, and non-partisanship of the administration of justice.” Litigants and advocates lack web property and requisite infrastructure and suggest that to participate in virtual hearings. The National Broadband Mission must be pursued quickly in order to provide dependable property to district and lower courts.

4. Privacy and data security are two issues that need to be addressed. The majority of virtual court proceedings in Bharat now employ third-party software packages or platforms, and many of them have already been banned because they are risky to use. Third-party platforms create a security hazard and are at risk of hacking and misuse. It was advised that the Ministries of Law and Justice and IT develop new software packages for India’s judiciary to use and to handle virtual court hearings. Current state of affairs Delhi tribunal, being the foremost advanced tribunal within the country in terms of technology, had already started victimisation associated with the E-filing system even before the pandemic. They’d come upon varied locations within the court so the lawyers get an inspiration of how the e-filing centres work. It consists of the signature of the lawyer/judge and e-filing is completed at specific e-filing centres. Ten courts of the urban center tribunal already used an associated electronic system of proceedings and since the condition of the COVID-19 pandemic is way from over, still following an equivalent system and are conducting the proceedings smoothingly.


Though video conferencing technology has been a valuable tool throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, existing scholarship suggests reasons to take care regarding the growth or long adoption of remote court proceedings. Additional analysis is critical, each regarding the potential impact of remote technology on outcomes during a numerous variety of cases, moreover because of the benefits and drawbacks with regard to access to justice. Meanwhile, as courts develop policies for remote proceedings, they ought to sit down with a broad set of stakeholders, as well as public defenders and prosecutors, legal services suppliers, victim and incapacity advocates, community leaders, and legal students.


Curated by Athira Albert of Kristu Jayanti College of Law, Bangalore.



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